Ashok Madhav (firstname.lastname@example.org)
There are several interesting types of kritis in the musical literature. As a rule, compositions of the Trinity do not have chittaswarams at all. If chittaswarms are sung along with the kritis of the Trinity, they have been added later on by their disciples or other musicians.
Tyagaraja compositions are devotional in nature and surely no chittaswarams are added by him. Tiruvaiyaru Sivaramakrishna Iyer, a grand disciple of Tyagaraja is credited to have added chittaswarams to many Tyagaraja kritis. Other musicians have also embellished kritis of Tyagaraja like “Nenarunchi nanu" in Malavi, “Vararaga laya" in Chenchu- kamboji, “Yochana kamala" in Darbar, “Raka sasi vadana" in Dakka, “Mamava satatam", “Shobillu saptaswara” both in Jaganmohini with attractive chittaswarams.
So are many other kritis like “Raga ratna.malikache” in Ritigoula, “Kanna tandri napai” in Devamanohari, “ Darini telusu konti”, in Shudda saveri, “Ninne bhajana” in Nattai, “Nee pada pankaja” in Begada, “Telisi rama chintanato “ in Purnachandrika, “Anathudanu ganu“ in Jingla, “Giriraja suta” in Bangala, “Marugelara” in Jayanthasri and a few other kritis have beautiful chittaswarams.
A few of Muthuswami Dikshitar compositions have chittaswarams added on “Sri Rama Saraswati” in Nasamani and “Anandamrutakarshini” in Amritavarshini have elegant chittaswarams. Some of Shyama Shastri’s compositions have chittaswarams added on by his son, Subbaraya Shashtri. “Marivere gati” in Anandabhairavi is one such kriti.
If sahitya is added to suit the chittaswaram for a particular kriti, it becomes swara-sahitya. Shyama Shastri is the first one to introduce swara-sahityas in his kritis. In that, the swaras (dhatu) part is rendered after the anupallavi and the corresponding sahitya (mathu) section at the end of charanam. Subbaraya Shastri himself has made compositions with built in chittaswaram. ”Ninnu vina gati” in Kalyani and “Janani ninnuvina” in Rithigowla have attractive chittaswaram. These kinds of kritis are generally known as swara-sahitya kritis.
Some charanams of Tyagaraja’s ghana raga pancharatnas have swara-sahitya pattern. Merattur Venkatarama.Iyer’s swarajati “E mandayanara” in Huseni has swara-sahitya pattern in the latter part. Mysore Sadashiva Rao’s compositions have elegant swara-sahitya patterns too. Sadashiva Rao’s kriti- Saketanagara natha’s swara-sahitya pattern begins with “Deva devamuni janahita……”
Shyama/ Shastri’s grandson, Annaswami Shastri has added swara-sahitya to his grandfather’s
madhyamavathi kriti “Palinchu Kamakshi” as follows: “Kanakagiri sadana Lalitha ninu bhajana santatamu jeya nijanudan vinumu nikhila bhuvana jananivi ipudu ma duritamu dirchi varalichi.” His “O Jagadamba” swara-sahitya pattern starts at “Vara sita giri nilayuni ...”
Other examples could be cited here. Shyama/ Shashtri kritis like Ninnu sevinchina (Yadukula kambhoji) and Sri Parthasarathe (Bhairavi) have swara-sahitya pattern. Mysore Sadashiva Rao kriti, Vachama gocharundani (Athana ) has similar swara-sahitya pattern. A few kritis of Subbaraya Shashtri have swara- sahitya pattern.
These innovative music composers have left a treasure of great kritis for posterity.